Publications of Carl H. Gibson, with notes.

1. Gibson, C. H. and W. H. Schwarz, "Detection of Conductivity Fluctuations in a Turbulent Flow Field," J. Fluid Mech. 16: 3 (1963), 357-364 (8 pages). This paper describes a new technique for measuring turbulent temperature and salinity with very high spatial resolution and essentially infinite frequency response using a "single electrode probe", where one electrode is very much smaller than the second. The method has been widely adopted in laboratory studies, and is the standard device used by Russian scientists to detect conductivity (usually temperature) microstructure from dropsondes and high speed towed bodies. The probe was essential in demonstrating the validity of the Batchelor (1959) turbulent mixing theory for the first time in the following paper. 2. Gibson, C. H. and W. H. Schwarz, "The Universal Equilibrium Spectra of Turbulent Velocity and Scalar Fields," J. Fluid Mech. 16: 3 (1963), 365-384 (20 pages). This was the first attempt by anyone to test the Kolmogorov (1941) universal similarity hypotheses using spectral measurements from wind tunnels (Stewart and Townsend), a water tunnel (my thesis work at Stanford), and the ocean (the data of Grant, Stewart and Moilliet from tidal channels and submarines that collapsed beautifully on the Kolmogorov scaled laboratory data I had already finished and plotted-producing a true believer). This was also the first laboratory test of the Batchelor high Prandtl number turbulent mixing theory, demonstration of the scalar inertial (k-5/3) and viscous convective (k-1) subranges, and extraction of the universal constants for these scalar subranges as well as the velocity universal inertial (k-5/3) subrange constant. 3a. Priestly, M. B. and C. H. Gibson, "Estimation of Power Spectra by a Wave-Analyzer," Technometrics 7: 4 (1965), 553-559 (7 pages). This was before tape recorders, digitizers, the fast fourier transform, or any of the present day luxuries. The paper describes how to measure spectra from a stationary time series using a tunable filter and analog averager. 3b. Letter to the Editor on "Estimation of Power Spectra by a Wave-Analyzer," Technometrics 8 (1966), 562-568 (7 pages). Somebody didn't understand and we had to explain it again. 4. Gibson, C. H., C. C. Chen and S. C. Lin, "Measurements of Turbulent Velocity and Temperature Fluctuations in the Wake of a Sphere," AIAA J. 6: 4 (1968), 642-649 (8 pages). Using much better hot film anemometer equipment, a stainless steel water tunnel, higher resolution microconductivity probes, instrumentation grade analog tape recorder, a proper digitizer, and digital data analysis methods it was possible to confirm the universal spectral forms of the Kolmogorov (1941) and Batchelor (1959) turbulence and turbulent mixing theories published in ref. 2, and also determine the c budget for turbulent wakes. This experiment clearly showed me the fallacy of the "well known" turbulence cascade direction from large scales to small. Turbulence always starts by eddies forming at the Kolmogorov (viscous) scale and cascades to larger scales by a sequence of eddy pairings, with entrainment of the irrotational (nonturbulent) external fluid at the Kolmogorov (viscous) scale. Everyone will tell you the opposite. Don't believe them. 5. Gibson, C. H., "Fine Structure of Scalar Fields Mixed by Turbulence: I. Zero-Gradient Points and Minimal Gradient Surfaces," Phys. Fluids 11: 11 (1968), 2305-2315 (11 pages). I realized a couple of years after my thesis was published that the physical rate-of-strain (g) mixing mechanism behind the Batchelor (1959) mathematical theory could be extended to strongly diffusive (low Prandtl number) scalar fields mixed by turbulence. I showed that scalar structures with zero and minimal gradient move with the fluid and are therefore subject to local straining, even if their radii of curvature are much larger that the scales of uniform straining, contrary to the Batchelor, Howells, and Townsend (1959) theory that assumes g is irrelevant for Pr 1. After three years of cordial correspondence with George Batchelor about my theory, I finally gave up and published in Physics of Fluids. I was able to extract a bet from George that if my theory were true I could not only have the subscription to the Journal of Fluid Mechanics I wanted, "but all the issues back to 1956". My education would be satisfaction enough if I lost. The jury is out. 6. Gibson, C. H., "Fine Structure of Scalar Fields Mixed by Turbulence: II. Spectral Theory," Phys. Fluids 11: 11 (1968), 2316-2327 (12 pages). Here the idea in ref. 5 is expressed as a universal similarity hypothesis similar to those of Kolmogorov (1941) for turbulent velocity fields, and a new "inertial diffusive" subrange (k-3) is predicted. This subrange and other predictions of the theory were confirmed by measurements in turbulent mercury by my student John Clay, and numerical experiments with W. Ashurst and A. Kerstein in ref. 52 (twenty years later in JFM). 7. Gibson, C. H. and R. B. Williams, "Turbulence Structure in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer over the Open Ocean," AGARDograph CP 48, No 5, Munich (1969), 110-121 (12 pages). These are the first such ocean air turbulence measurements ever, from FLIP with Bruce Williams of MPL, who helped me get started using digital techniques to study turbulence in and over the ocean. We made the first underwater measurements I had ever seen on this unfunded cruise using my laboratory instruments, and I made the wise career decision to focus on atmospheric measurements until I was awarded tenure (the turbulence signals on the hot film anemometer were exceedingly rare and tiny in amplitude- much too risky for an Assistant Professor to publish). 8. Gibson, C. H., R. R. Lyon and I. Hirschsohn, "Reaction Product Fluctuations in a Sphere Wake," AIAA J. 8: 10 (1970), 1859-1863 (5 pages). Using weak acid and weak base that are non-conductors, the reaction product distribution is revealed by microconductivity probe measurements. As far as I know, these measurements were (and are) unique. The distribution appears just like that of a passive scalar, and since the product appears at scales even smaller than the Batchelor scale this is further demonstration of the true direction of the turbulence and turbulent mixing cascade (i.e.: from small to large scales). 9. Gibson, C. H., G. R. Stegen and R. B. Williams, "Statistics of the Fine Structure of Turbulent Velocity and Temperature Fields at High Reynolds Number," J. Fluid Mech. 41 (1970), 153-167 (15 pages). Some initial results of atmospheric measurements over the open ocean from FLIP. The apparent departures of the universal temperature spectrum constants from the laboratory values at these high Reynolds numbers were subsequently found to be due to humidity sensitivity of the cold wires from salt spray contamination (part of the famous "cold spike" phenomenon-announced in a news conference by Bob Stewart and Steve Pond after the 1969 BOMEX expedition on FLIP near Barbados). 10. Gibson, C. H., G. R. Stegen and S. McConnell, "Measurements of the Universal Constant in Kolmogoroff's Third Hypothesis for High Reynolds Number Turbulence," Phys. Fluids 13: 10 (1970), 2448-2451 (4 pages). This is the first paper published in the western literature on the third universal similarity hypothesis of Kolmogorov (1962) on lognormality and intermittency of very high Reynolds number turbulence. The hypothesis that viscous dissipation rate e should be lognormal was confirmed and the value of the constant m in his hypothesis s2lner = m ln (L/r) was found to be 0.4-0.5 from the spectrum of the dissipation which should be ~ k-1+m, where s2 is the variance, L is the largest eddy size of the cascade, and r is the averaging scale. The paper was written in four pages in honor of Kolmogorov's style. The constant is crucial to understanding the observed intermittency of ocean mixing, and is currently being rather fiercely debated by several prominent authors that claim m = 0.2 or less. See ref. 68, 77, C29, and C31 which confirm m = 0.4-0.5. 11. Friehe, C. A., C. W. Van Atta and C. H. Gibson, "Jet Turbulence: Dissipation Rate Measurements and Correlations," AGARDograph CP 93, No. 18, London (1971), 88-103 (16 pages). From measurements Carl Friehe and John La Rue (now Professors at UCI) made in the UCSD gymnasium from a huge jet, and a literature search, we discovered a very useful correlation equation for the viscous dissipation rate in jets [e = 48 (U3/D) (x/D)-4]. 12. Gibson, C. H. and P. J. Masiello, "Observations of the Variability of Dissipation Rates of Turbulent Velocity and Temperature Fields," in Lecture Notes in Physics, Vol. 12, Springer-Verlag (1972), 427-448 (22 pages). Several aspects of the Kolmogorov (1962) third universal similarity hypothesis for high Reynolds number turbulence were tested using hot wire turbulence measurements 30 m over the ocean from FLIP during BOMEX and off the coast of Mexico, and from temperature and velocity measurements in a Re = 120,000 jet in the UCSD gymnasium. The universal intermittency constant m was found to be in the range 0.4-0.5 by several methods, including a direct test of s2lner = m ln (L/r) for various averaging scales r. It was discovered that the use of adequate high pass filter setting are crucially important, since the universal dissipation subrange extends to much smaller scales (by a factor of 7) than that of the turbulent velocity (see ref. C31). The Gurvich-Yoglom cascade model of lognormality was tested and found to be generally valid (independent identically distributed dissipation ratios were found over a wide range of scales) but their assumption that all squared quantities are lognormal failed for the small value range. 13. Gibson, C. H. and P. A. Libby, "On Turbulent Flows with Fast Chemical Reactions: Part II. The Distribution of Reactants and Products Near a Reacting Surface," Combust. Sci. Technol. 6 (1972), 29-35 (7 pages). Using the smallest microconductivity probe I ever succeeded in making (tip size 1/4 micron from an electron microscope photograph) it was possible to detect the very thin reaction product zone for the fast weak acid (acetic) weak base (ammonium hydroxide) reaction, and compare with a reacting boundary layer theory of Professor Libby. 14. Stegen, G. R., C. H. Gibson and C. A. Friehe, "Measurements of Momentum and Sensible Heat Fluxes over the Open Ocean," J. Phys. Oceanogr. 3: 1 (1973), 86- 92 (7 pages). Basic heat, mass and momentum flux coefficients measured directly from FLIP, very carefully by Stegen and Friehe during their post doc days with me. 15. Gibson, C. H. and R. B. Williams, "Measurements of Turbulence and Turbulent Mixing in the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent," in Oceanography of the South Pacific 1972 (Proceedings of the International Symposium on Oceanography of the South Pacific), R. Fraser (Ed.), New Zealand Commission for UNESCO, Wellington (1973), 19- 23 (5 pages). This is the first report from an unfunded pickup cruise in April, 1971, to measure turbulence in the Cromwell current with all the instruments I could scrounge from my water tunnel laboratory. We put a fast ducted current meter and a quartz fiber cold film on an 800 lb lead weighted fish, and towed for two weeks at hard labor before we found any recognizable turbulence. Now I realize that equatorial turbulence is probably the most difficult turbulence to detect in the ocean because it has maximum intermittency factors s2lner, from the s2lner = m ln (L/r) third hypothesis equation since the lack of Coriolis forces allows L to increase without bound. Intermittency factors can be in the range 6-7, giving mean to mode ratios over 104 for the pdfs of e and c. Mean values are completely dominated by a few powerful patches, and we were lucky to find any even with this much towing. 16. Gibson, C. H., "Digital Techniques in Turbulence Research, "AGARDograph AG 174 (1973), 26pp (26 pages). We made the first direct digital data acquisition and spectral analysis ever for ocean turbulence during the 1971 equatorial undercurrent cruise. This report describes some of the techniques developed later in the laboratory and at sea studies. 17. Gibson, C. H., L. A. Vega and R. B. Williams, "Turbulent Diffusion of Heat and Momentum in the Ocean, "Adv. Geophys. 18A (1974), 353-370 (18 pages). Some unexpected results of near surface turbulence measurements over waves. Rather than maximum dissipation rates in the lee of wave crests the maximum was found upwind (the waves were moving faster than the wind). 18. Williams, R. B. and C. H. Gibson, "Direct Measurements of Turbulence in the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent," J. Phys. Oceanogr. 4: 1 (1974), 104-108 (5 pages). Bruce Williams' thesis work, showing his most active towed body data had e values up to 0.1 cm2 s-3 and c values up to 10-4 C2 s-1 at the core depth of the Cromwell current at the equator and at 1 N from many days of towing. These values were the first ever measured in the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent, and were 20 years ahead of their time. They have been furiously denied as impossible over the years by the oceanographic microstructure community on the grounds that these dissipation rates are about 104 times larger than anything seen by other investigators (except the Russians who found the same result in the Limonosov current, also from towed bodies). However, during the second Tropic Heat expedition when many thousands of dropsondes through the core were carried out-the number needed to encounter one dominant turbulence patch at this depth of maximum lognormal dissipation rate with maximum intermittency-one such patch was finally detected (many fossils of previously turbulent patches were found). 19. Schedvin, J. C., G. R. Stegen and C. H. Gibson, "Universal Similarity at High Grid Reynolds Numbers," J. Fluid Mech. 65 (1974), 561-579 (18 pages). By an interation scheme it was possible to show that the anomalously large value of the Kolmogorov inertial subrange constant reported by Kistler and Vrebolovich for a very high Reynolds number grid turbulence flow was almost certainly due to the wire length correction. 20. LaRue, J. C., T. K. Deaton and C. H. Gibson, "Measurement of High Frequency Turbulent Temperature," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 46: 6 (1975), 757-764 (8 pages). Circuitry was developed to permit high frequency measurements from the SIO DC3 aircraft in conjunction with FLIP measurements. 21. Gibson, C. H., Osmidov, R. V. and V. T. Paka, "Soviet-American Oceanic Turbulence Intercomparison Experiment on 11th Cruise of the DMITRI-MENDELEEV," Akad. Nauk USSR Oceanology XV (1975), 191-194 (4 pages). During a visit to Moscow for an IUTAM meeting, it was possible to meet Professor Osmidov at the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology. We discovered we were both measuring turbulence in the equatorial undercurrent cores simultaneously in 1971 in different oceans, and that we both found approximately the same e values. At the invitation of Professor Monin and the Academy of Science of the USSR, I was invited to take part in an intercomparison turbulence study on board the DMITRI-MENDELEEV in 1974. John Schedvin, Tom Deaton and I joined the cruise, and analysis of the data constituted John Schedvin's Ph. D. thesis, which showed the first well documented fossil turbulence in the ocean. 22. Friehe, C. A., C. H. Gibson, F. H. Champagne and J. C. LaRue, "Turbulence Measurements in the Marine Boundary Layer," Atmos. Tech. 7 (1975), 15-23 (9 pages). Heat, mass, and momentum exchange coefficients from a variety of settings around the world from careful measurements by this excellent set of my post docs, all of whom are now university Professors. 23. Friehe, C. A., J. C. LaRue, F. H. Champagne, C. H. Gibson and C. F. Dreyer, "Effects of Temperature and Humidity Fluctuations on the Optical Refractive Index in the Marine Boundary Layer, "J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65: 12 (1975), 1502-1511 (10 pages). We found that different combinations of temperature and humidity determined by the boundary layer conditions could have dramatically different effects on the "seeing". Over the ocean the effects of the two fields on refractive index typically were additive, but over the Salton Sea they canceled. 24. Mestayer, P. G., C. H. Gibson, M. F. Coantic and A. S. Patel, "Local Anisotropy in Heated and Cooled Turbulent Boundary Layers, "Phys. Fluids 19: 9 (1976), 1279-1287 (9 pages). Investigations into the ramplike structures typical of the temperature fluctuations over a hot or cold boundary, and the connection to anisotropy (nonzero skewness of the temperature derivative) observed in the microstructure. 25. Gibson, C. H., C. A. Friehe and S. O. McConnell, "Structure of Sheared Turbulent Fields," Phys. Fluids 20: 10, Pt. II (1977), S156-S167 (12 pages). Further discussion of anisotropy effects, this time in the vertical velocity derivatives. The effects were barely detectable, and not in conflict with Kolmogorov's assumption of an approach to local isotropy at very high Reynolds number. 26. Gibson, C. H., "Detection of Oceanic Microprocesses by Towed Profiling Sensors," Proceedings of the 6th Australasian Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics Conference (Sidney, Australia, December 1977), UNESCO (1980), 68- 71 (4 pages). A review of the advantages of using towed bodies to measure microstructure in the ocean rather than dropsondes. 27. Schmitt, K. F., C. A. Friehe and C. H. Gibson, "Humidity Sensitivity of Atmospheric Temperature Sensors by Salt Contamination," J. Phys. Oceanogr. 8: 1 (1978), 151-161 (11 pages) It took three FLIP expeditions at hard labor to pin down this negative effect, and finally explain the peculiar results of ref. 9 and the "cold spikes" observed on every temperature sensor during BOMEX nine years earlier. 28. Gibson, C. H., "Zero Gradient Points in Turbulent Mixing," in Lecture Notes in Physics, Vol. 76, Structure and Mechanisms of Turbulence, Pt. II, C. H. Fiedler (Ed.), Springer-Verlag (1978), 347-352 (6 pages). A review of my 1968 theory and available evidence about low Pr turbulent mixing. 29. Mestayer, P. G., F. H. Champagne, C. A. Friehe, J. C. LaRue and C. H. Gibson, "Estimation of the Fluxes over the Ocean by the Covariance and Dissipation Methods," in Turbulent Fluxes Through the Sea Surface, Wave Dynamics, and Prediction, Vol. 1, A. Favre and K. Hasselman (Eds.), Plenum Press (1978), 51-65 (15 pages). Summary of conclusions about the relative advantages of the two techniques, and recommended constants. 30. Friehe, C. A. and C. H. Gibson, "Estimates of the Surface Fluxes over the Ocean," in Turbulent Fluxes Through the Sea Surface, Wave Dynamics and Prediction, Vol. 1, A. Favre and K. Hasselman (Eds.), Plenum Press (1978), 67-79 (13 pages). Further discussion of flux estimates over the ocean. 31. Schmitt, K. F., C. A. Friehe and C. H. Gibson, "Sea Surface Stress Measurements," Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 15 (1978), 215-228 (14 pages). Results on the subject from Kurt Schmitt's thesis. 32. Schmitt, K. F., C. A. Friehe and C. H. Gibson, "Structure of Marine Surface Layer Turbulence," J. Atmos. Sci. 36: 4 (1979), 602-618 (17 pages). Results on the subject from Kurt Schmitt's thesis. 33. Gibson, C. H., "Temperature Measurements in the Soviet-American Expedition to Intercalibrate Microstructure Measured in the Ocean," in Proceedings of the 14th Pacific Science Congress (Khabarovsk, USSR, August 1979), Akad. Nauk, USSR, Section F (1980), 130 (1 page). A brief report of our intercalibration cruise, showing both sets of instruments gave the same indications of turbulence activity in the Flinders Current between Adelaide and Melbourne Australia. 34. Gibson, C. H., "Fossil Temperature, Salinity, and Vorticity Turbulence in the Ocean," in Marine Turbulence, J. C. H. Nihoul (Ed.), Elsevier Oceanography Series, Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1980), 221-257 (37 pages). After five years of frustration trying unsuccessfully to publish my fossil turbulence theory and John Schedvin's careful PhD thesis work (422 pages) (from the 1974 DMITRI-MENDELEEV cruise) in the refereed oceanographic literature (Journal of Physical Oceanography, Journal of Geophysical Research) I finally placed it in this conference proceedings book. A typical review from JPO referees of this carefully written document was simply: "This paper is pure rubbish!". The paper introduces the concept of the hydrodynamic phase diagram to classify microstructure as active turbulence, active-fossil turbulence, fossil turbulence, or non-turbulence based on a normalized Froude number versus normalized Reynolds number plot, and the semi-empirical inference that the buoyancy-inertial-viscous transition dissipation rate eF = 30nN2. John was never allowed to publish his thesis results in the oceanographic literature before his untimely death. He was the best student I have ever seen from SIO. 35. Gibson, C. H., "Turbulence," in Encyclopedia of Physics, R. G. Lerner and G. L. Trigg (Eds.), Addison- Wesley Publishing Co., Inc. (1980), 1072-1073 (2 pages). Turbulence is defined, Kolmogorov's universal similarity theories are outlined, and the effects of stratification given. 36. Larsen, S., J. Hojstrup and C. H. Gibson, "Fast- Response Temperature Sensors," in Air-Sea Interaction, Instruments and Methods, F. Dobson, L. Hasse and R. Davis (Eds.), Plenum Press, New York (1980), 269-292 (24 pages). Discussion of measurement and frequency response correction techniques used in a joint study with the Danes on their meteorological tower in Roskilde. 37. Gibson, C. H. and T. K. Deaton, "Hot/Cold Sensors of Oceanic Microstructure," in Air-Sea Interaction, Instruments and Methods, F. Dobson, L. Hasse and R. Davis (Eds.), Plenum Press, New York (1980), 349-368 (20 pages) Discussion of measurement strategies used in the design of the towed body deployed during the MILE expedition at ocean station PAPA. This was the first possible intercomparison test of towed bodies and dropsondes in the same ocean region, and confirmed my opinion that dropsondes vastly undersample the extremely intermittent turbulence and turbulent mixing processes occurring in all ocean layers. 38. Gibson, C. H., "Buoyancy Effects in Turbulent Mixing: Sampling Turbulence in the Stratified Ocean," AIAA J. 19 (1981), 1394-1400 (7 pages). This paper was also unpublishable in the oceanographic literature for several years, so I finally sent it to a friend and editor of the Amer. Inst. of Aero. and Astro. J., George Sutton, who thought it was interesting and well written, and ignored his reviewers that recognized that it was oceanography. It is also fluid mechanics. 39. Gibson, C. H., "Fossil Turbulence and Internal Waves," in American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings No 76: Nonlinear Properties of Internal Waves, Bruce West (Ed.), American Institute of Physics (1981), 159-179 (21 pages). The second successful attempt to put my fossil turbulence theory into print. It slightly refines the universal constant I derived in ref. 34 for the inertial-buoyancy transition scale (Osmidov scale). 40. Washburn, L. and C. H. Gibson, "Measurements of Oceanic Microstructure Using a Small Conductivity Sensor," J. Geophys. Res. 87: C6 (1982), 4230-4240 (11 pages). Discusses Libe Washburn's careful analysis of the MILE expedition towed body measurements taken by John Schedvin. Multiply redundant temperature, conductivity, and velocity signals are intercompared to fend off claims that all towed body signals are contaminated by vibration. 41. Gibson, C. H., "Alternative Interpretations for Microstructure Patches in the Thermocline," J. Phys. Oceanogr. 12 (1982), 374-383 (20 pages). The Gregg (1977) data set is compared to my fossil turbulence theory, and the microstructure patches presented are shown to be highly fossilized in all cases. Temperature overturns of up to ten meters in the vertical were presented, with maximum possible overturns in the vertical due to turbulence (Osmidov scales) of only a few centimeters. 42. Gibson, C. H., "On the Scaling of Vertical Temperature Gradient Spectra," J. Geophys. Res. 87: C10 (1982), 8031- 8038 (8 pages). Application of fossil turbulence theory to the interpretation of the Dillon and Caldwell data set taken during the MILE expedition. None of the microstructure patches presented are fully turbulent according to hydrodynamic phase diagrams derived from my 1980 theory. Most are in the active-fossil or completely fossil quadrants, indicating severe undersampling. 43. Gibson, C. H., "Fossil Turbulence in the Denmark Strait," J. Geophys. Res. 87: C10 (1982), 8039-8046 (8 pages). Application of fossil turbulence theory to Oakey's measurements of very large overturn patches with rather small e values in the Denmark Strait, with similar conclusions. None of the patches presented are fully turbulent, or even close, again indicating severe undersampling of the turbulence and turbulent mixing process, and possibly explaining the discrepancy reported between the dropsonde estimates and those from bulk flow models (the "dark mixing" paradox). 44. Gibson, C. H., "Turbulence in the Equatorial Undercurrent Core," in Hydrodynamics of the Equatorial Ocean (Proceedings of the 14th International Liege Colloquium on Ocean Hydrodynamics, (Liege, May 1982), Vol. 36, J. C. H. Nihoul (Ed.), Elsevier Oceanography Series, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1983), 131-154 (24 pages). Intercomparison of towed body and dropsonde measurements in the core of the equatorial undercurrent and in the seasonal thermocline during the MILE expedition, showing the extremely intermittent lognormal distribution of the dissipation rates in these layers, and the high probability of underestimating the true mean values based on a small number of dropsonde samples. 45. Washburn, L. and C. H. Gibson, "Horizontal Variability of Temperature Microstructure in the Seasonal Thermocline during MILE," J. Geophys. Res. 89 (1984), 3507-3522 (16 pages). Libe Washburn's thesis results, showing the extremely intermittent lognormal distribution of the temperature dissipation rate in the seasonal thermocline, with intermittency factors s2lnc ª 5. Loop structures in the TS diagram suggest large horizontal eddies exist in a cascade that explains it. 46. Gibson, C. H. "Internal Waves, Fossil Turbulence, and Composite Ocean Microstructure Spectra," J. Fluid Mech. 168 (1986), 89-117 (29 pages). Reinterpretation of the paper by this title by Gargett et al. Fossil turbulence theory is used to show that the composite ocean shear spectra are subsaturated (not saturated as presented) internal waves at low frequencies, and fossil vorticity turbulence (not turbulence) at high frequencies. Typical temperature spectral forms of Gregg (1977) give the same interpretations. 47. Gibson, C. H., "Oceanic Turbulence; Big Bangs and Continuous Creation," J. Physicochem. Hydrodyn., 8: 1 (1987), 1-22 (22 pages). Development of a fossil turbulence cascade model, based on published dropsonde measurements. 48. Baker, M. A. and C. H. Gibson, "Sampling Turbulence in the Stratified Ocean: Statistical Consequences of Strong Intermittency," J. of Phys. Oceanogr., 17: 10 (1987), 1817-1837 (22 pages). Mark Baker's thesis results. All available ocean microstructure data for e and c are examined, and are shown to be well represented by extremely intermittent lognormal probability distributions, with intermittency factors s2lne and s2lnc in the range 3-7. The consequences of neglecting effects of extreme intermittency on estimates of average values are examined [underestimates are quite likely-the mean to mode ratio for a lognormal is exp(3s2/2)]. Confidence intervals for maximum likelihood estimators of mean values assuming lognormality are derived, and it is shown that the numbers of independent samples of e and c required by the s2 data to achieve 10% accuracy in estimates of mean values are in the range 100 to 10,000. 49. Ashurst, W. T., A. R. Kerstein, R. M. Kerr and C. H. Gibson, "Alignment of vorticity and scalar gradient with strain rate in simulated Navier-Stokes turbulence", Phys. of Fluids, 30: 8 (1987), 2343-2353 (11 pages). Direct numerical simulations of the Navier Stokes equations and scalar mixing are used to estimate average rate of strain statistics and the scalar gradient alignment statistics. The principle g values were found to be in the ratio (3,1,-4), supporting the vermicelli turbulence model (different stretching in two directions, flattening in the other). 50. Gibson, C. H., "Fossil Turbulence and Intermittency in Sampling Oceanic Mixing Processes," J. Geophys. Res. 92: C5 (1987), 5383-5404 (12 pages). This paper summarizes all available laboratory and field information at the time of the Margaret River stratified turbulence symposium for comparison with fossil and non- fossil turbulence models of stratified turbulence. 51. Gibson, C. H., "Turbulence and Mixing in Stably Stratified Fluids,", Proceedings: International Conference on Fluid Mechanics, July 1-4, Beijing, China Science Press (1987), 116-121 (6 pages). Review of fossil turbulence theory for stratified flows. 52. Gibson, C. H., W. T. Ashurst and A. R. Kerstein, "Mixing of Strongly Diffusive Passive Scalars Like Temperature by Turbulence," J. Fluid Mech. 194 (1988), 261-293 (33 pages). Compares numerical simulations of low Prandtl number turbulent mixing, as well as the turbulent temperature in mercury measurements of John Clay, with the Gibson (1968) and Batchelor, Howells and Townsend (1959) theories. The evidence supports the Gibson (1968) k-3 theory between the Obukov-Corrsin and Batchelor scales, but also indicates that the k-17/3 subrange predicted by the BHT (1959) theory also exists between the Batchelor and Kolmogorov scales. 53. Gibson, C. H., "Hydrodynamic Phase Diagrams for Microstructure in Stratified Flows", in "Stratified Flows", Proceedings: Third International Symposium on Stratified Flows, Pasadena, Feb. 3-5, 1987, J. E. List and G. H. Jirka, Eds., American Society of Civil Engineers CP 775 (1990), 276-290 (23 pages). A variety of techniques for classifying the hydrodynamic state of stratified microstructure as active turbulence, active- fossil turbulence, or fossil turbulence are explored. 54. Gibson, C. H., "Isoenstrophy Points and Surfaces in Turbulent Flow and Mixing," Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on Fundamental Aspects of Vortex Motion, Tokyo, Aug. 31-Sept. 4, 1987, Fluid Dynamics Research 3 (1988), 331-336 (6 pages). The kinematics of turbulent vorticity fields are derived. Points of zero and minimal enstrophy (squared vorticity) are found to move approximately with the fluid, except for small viscous diffusion velocities. 55. Gibson, C. H., "Evidence and Consequences of Fossil Turbulence in the Ocean", in Small Scale Turbulence and Mixing in the Ocean, Proceedings of the 19th International Liege Colloquium on Ocean Hydrodynamics (Liege, May 1987), Vol. 46, J. C. H. Nihoul and B. M. Jamart (Ed.), Elsevier Oceanography Series, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1988), 319-334 (16 pages). Most of the microstructure measured in the ocean is shown to be fossilized, suggesting undersampling and possible underestimates of mean dissipation rates needed to predict turbulent diffusivities. 56. McDougall, T., S. Thorpe and C. Gibson, Eds., "Small-Scale Turbulence and Mixing in the Ocean: A Glossary", in Small Scale Turbulence and Mixing in the Ocean, Proceedings of the 19th International Liege Colloquium on Ocean Hydrodynamics (Liege, May 1987), Vol. 46, J. C. H. Nihoul and B. M. Jamart (Ed.), Elsevier Oceanography Series, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1988), 3-9 (7 pages). Report of an effort by SCOR Working Group 69 on small scale turbulence in the ocean to define terms. This meeting was organized by our Working Group. 57. Gibson, C. H., "Comment on 'Reynolds number effects on turbulence in the presence of stable stratification', by A. E. Gargett", in Small Scale Turbulence and Mixing in the Ocean, Proceedings of the 19th International Liege Colloquium on Ocean Hydrodynamics (Liege, May 1987), Vol. 46, J. C. H. Nihoul and B. M. Jamart (Ed.), Elsevier Oceanography Series, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1988), 529-530 (2 pages). Comments on a very bad paper (although Ann's ideas are quite typical of the low level of understanding of stratified turbulence in the oceanographic microstructure community). 58. Gibson, C. H., "Oceanic and Interstellar Fossil Turbulence", in Radio Wave Scattering in the Interstellar Medium, AIPCP 174, B. J. Rickett, J. M. Cordes D. C. Backer (Ed.) (1988), 74-79 (6 pages). Some speculations about turbulence in the interstellar medium and star formation. Is there a connection between the size of solar systems and the scale of buoyancy inhibition of turbulence by the self gravitation of a protostar? 59. Gibson, C. H., "Chapter 18. Turbulence, Mixing, and Microstructure", in The Sea, Volume 9, Ocean Engineering Science, D. Hanes and B. LeMehaute, Eds., John Wiley and Sons, New York (1990), 631-659 (29 pages) Review of stratified turbulence fundamentals and the problems of sampling turbulence and turbulent mixing at sea. Control volumes are used to explain the Reynolds (1895) decomposition postulates and the Osborn-Cox dissipation flux theory. 60. Gibson, C.H., "Scalar Field Topology in Turbulent Mixing", Topological Fluid Mechanics, Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium, Cambridge U. K., 1989, H. K. Moffatt and A. Tsinober, Eds., Cambridge University Press (1990), 85-94 (10 pages). Discussion of the statistical geometry of scalar mixing theory. 61. Gibson, C. H., "Turbulence," in Encyclopedia of Physics, R. G. Lerner and G. L. Trigg (Eds.), Addison- Wesley Publishing Co., Inc. (1991), 1310-1314 (5 pages). This is an update of my 1981 entry on turbulence in this encyclopedia (see ref. 35). 62. Thomas, W. H. & C. H. Gibson, "Effects of Small- Scale Turbulence on Microalgae", J. Applied Phycology, 2 (1990), 71-77 (7 pages). Marine biologists have known for thirty years that dinoflagellate growth is inhibited by turbulence in laboratory cultures, but this is the first attempt to quantify the turbulence threshold for growth inhibition for any species. Using a Coriolis force stabilized Couette flow (outer cylinder rotating) to produce a field of uniform rate-of-strain and a non-rotating control, the strain rates required to inhibit the growth were measured. The possibility that the laboratory results are connected to red tide formation and wind turbulence is explored. 63. Thomas, W. H. & C. H. Gibson, "Quantified Small- Scale Turbulence Inhibits a Red Tide Dinoflagellate, Gonyaulax polyedra Stein", Deep Sea Research 37: 10 (1990), 1583-1593 (11 pages). Details of the experiments are given, and comparison with widely scattered estimates of surface layer turbulence levels are made. 64. Gibson, C.H., "Fossil Turbulence in Rotating, Stratified Flows", in Europhysics Conference Abstracts, On Turbulence, Proceedings of the 5th European Physical Society Liquid State Conference, Moscow, USSR, 16-21 October 1989, K. Bethge, Ed. (1989), 227-230 (4 pages). This conference was organized to honor Kolmogorov, who died in 1988. I gave the second talk, after Obukhov and before Monin, on the role of Kolmogorov's ideas about turbulence in oceanography. The paper describes the fossil turbulence phenomenon in ocean turbulence due to buoyancy and Coriolis constraints to the growth of turbulence, and the remnant (fossil turbulence) internal waves and Coriolis- inertial eddies that persist after oceanic turbulence is damped by these forces, and emphasizes the direct connection between my fossil turbulence theory and the Kolmogovov universal similarity hypotheses of unconstrained turbulence. 65. Gibson, C. H., "Fossil Two-Dimensional Turbulence in the Ocean", in Turbulent Shear Flows, Vol. 7, Ed., F. Durst, W. C. Reynolds, Springer-Verlag (1991), 63-78 (8 pages). A discussion of fossil turbulence formation due to Coriolis force constraints of horizontal turbulence in the ocean, leaving remnant eddies that preserve information about the turbulence that produced them. 66. Gibson, C. H., "Introduction to Scalar and Stratified Flows", in Turbulent Shear Flows, Vol. 7, Ed., F. Durst, W. C. Reynolds,, Springer-Verlag (1991), 3-7, (5 pages). An invited paper introducing a section of this book. 67. Gibson, C. H., "Laboratory, Numerical, and Oceanic Fossil Turbulence in Rotating and Stratified Flows", J. Geophys. Res. (1991), 96: C7, 12,549-12,566 (18 pages). A summary of the accumulated, and overwhelming, evidence demonstrating the stratified fossil turbulence phenomenon, and confirming the universal constants proposed in the Gibson (1980) theory. 68. Gibson, C. H., "Kolmogorov Similarity Hypotheses for Scalar Fields: Sampling Intermittent Turbulent Mixing in the Ocean and Galaxy", in Turbulence and stochastic processes: Kolmogorov's ideas 50 years on, Proceedings of the Royal Society London, Ser. A, V434 (N1890) (1991), 149-164 (16 pages). An invited paper summarizing the extension of Kolmogorov's (1941) first and second universal similarity hypotheses for high Reynolds number turbulence to the case of scalar fields like temperature mixed by turbulence in my 1968 turbulent mixing theory (see ref's 5 and 6), and comparing the Kolmogorov (1962) third hypothesis to our AKADEMIK KURCHATOV Cruise 51 tests for lognormality and the intermittency constant m for temperature dissipation in the seasonal thermocline off Monterey, California, using the Russian towed turbulimeter GRIF. The data show very precise agreement with lognormality of c averaged over 10 octave scales from 1 to 1000 meters, and m = 0.44 ± 0.01 from a direct test of s2lncr = m ln (L/r), in excellent agreement with our previous atmospheric measurements (see ref. 10 and ref. 12). 69. Gibson, C. H., "Turbulence, Mixing, and Heat Flux in the Ocean Main Thermocline", J. Geophys. Res., 96: C7 (1991), 20,403-20,420 (18 pages). The Gregg (1977) microstructure measurements of Cox numbers in different seasons and years at the same site in the central Pacific are treated as representative independent samples of mixing in the main thermocline. The distributions are extremely intermittent lognormals for all data and for depth classes, indicating mean values consistent with a constant vertical heat flux of about 6 Watts/m2. This flux is about 30 times greater than values inferred without taking the extreme intermittency and lognormality of the data into account, and is consistent with bulk flow models of the thermocline such as the Munk (1966) Abyssal Recipe. 70. Thomas, W. H., C. H. Gibson, "Effects of Quantified Small-Scale Turbulence on the Dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium sanguinum (splendens): Contrasts with Gonyaulax (Lingulodinium) polyedra, and Fishery Implication", Deep Sea Research A, 39: 7-8 (1992), 1429-1437 (8 pages). Tests of turbulence growth inhibition for a different species of dinoflagellate were made, and showed some similarities and differences in the growth response that have fishery implications. 71. Lozovatsky, I. D, A. S. Ksenofontov, A. Y. Erofeev, C. H. Gibson, "Modeling of the Evolution of Vertical Structure in the Upper Ocean by Atmospheric Forcing and Intermittent Turbulence in the Pycnocline", J. of Marine Systems, 4: 2-3 (1993), 263-273 (11 pages). Statistics of patch thicknesses and patch separations collected and interpreted by oceanographers of the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Moscow (and me). 72. Lilover, M. J. , I. D Lozovatsky, C. H. Gibson, V. Nabatov, "Turbulence Exchange Through the Equatorial Undercurrent Core of the Central Pacific", J. of Marine Systems, 4: 2-3 (1993), 183-195 (13 pages). First report of the 1991 cruise of the AKADEMIK KURCHATOV to the equatorial Pacific, describing dropsonde microstructure, CTD temperature and salinity and AD velocity profile stations at 15' intervals on 176 W from 2 N to 2 S, GRIF towed microstructure profiling at the core, and BAKLAN dropsonde profiling of e and c microstructure near Baker and Howland Islands. 73. Gibson, C. H., V. Nabatov, R. Ozmidov, "Measurements of Turbulence and Fossil Turbulence Near Ampere Seamount", Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans, (1994), 175-204, (29 pages). One problem oceanographers have expressed about my fossil turbulence interpretation of ocean microstructure is that none of the microstructure patches considered were ever found to be actively turbulent. My explanation has been that such original turbulence patches are completely active for only a small fraction of their persistence time as partially or completely fossilized remnants, and that if you want to see fully active turbulence patches, you need to either take more data or go to a source of active turbulence, such as the shallow seamount of the present study. According to my fossil turbulence theory, a completely active turbulence patch should have dissipation rate e greater than or equal to 3LT2N3, where LT is the maximum density overturn scale and N is the stratification frequency. It was found from BAKLAN dropsonde measurements of Nabatov and Osmidov that many turbulence patches with e > 3LT2N3 could be found within less than a mile and below the crest of Ampere Seamount, but very few at greater distances. 74. Gibson, C. H., "Some Unanswered Questions in Fluid Mechanics, The Direction of the Turbulence Cascade", Eds., L. M. Trefethen, R. L. Panton and J. A. C. Humphrey, ASME Winter Annual Meeting (1991), ASME paper 91- WA-FE-1, (2 pages). Internet qbank@pearl.tufts.edu: ftp jade.turts.edu, login [anonymous], password [abcdef], cd pub/qbank, get p2, quit. One of the myths of turbulence theory is that the direction of the turbulence cascade is from large scales to small, following the Richardson poem "Big whorls have little whorls, that feed on their velocity. And smaller whorls have smaller whorls, and so on to viscosity (in the molecular sense)." The actual turbulence goes the other way, according to the revised poem "Little whorls at viscous scales, form and pair with more of, whorls that grow by vortex forces. Slava Kolmogorov!". 75. Thomas, W. H., M. Vernet, C. H. Gibson, "Mechanisms of Gonyaulax polyedra (Dinophycaea) Inhibition by Small-Scale Turbulence: Photosynthesis, Pigmentation, Cell Division, and Cell Sizes," J. of Phycology, (1994), (16 pages). Growth inhibitions of cultures in rotating bottles were measured, and investigations of possible mechanisms carried out. Photosynthesis and pigmentation are not affected, but cell splitting is strongly inhibited by turbulence as shown by the larger cell sizes. 76. Gibson, C. H. and W. H. Thomas, "Effects of Turbulence Intermittency on Growth Inhibition of a Red Tide Dinoflagellate, Gonyaulax polyedra Stein," J. of Geophysical Research, Vol. 100, No. C12, pp. 24,841- 24,846, 1995. The threshold for growth inhibition by average turbulence dissipation rates are decreased by factors of up to 100 by reducing the time interval of the turbulence to a small fraction of the day, but the turbulence time must be longer than several minutes. This extreme sensitivity of growth to turbulence intermittency is compared to the strong negative correlations of wave heights (with intermittent turbulence) to weak correlations of wind speeds (with continuous turbulence) observed by our student Cyndy Tynan from phytoplankton population measurements on the SIO Pier. 77. Bershadskii, A. and C. H. Gibson, "Singularities in Multifractal Turbulence-Dissipation Networks and Their Degeneration," Physica A (1995) (15 pages). Catastrophe theory of singularities on dissipation networks, or caustic surfaces, is used to infer values of the Kolmogorov intermittency constant m in terms of the network fractal variability with increasing Reynolds number. For small Reynolds numbers the dissipation rate distribution is exponential and the effective m value is small: between 1/6 and 1/3. Degeneration of the caustics into a system of smooth filaments results in lognormality of e and a value of m = 1/2 according to multifractal asymptotics, close to the values for m and the distribution function for e observed at high Reynolds number experimentally (see ref.'s 10, 12, and 68). 78. Gibson, C. H., "Introduction to Turbulent Flow and Mixing," Section 1.5 in Handbook of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery, Joseph Schetz and Allen E. Fuhs (Eds.), John Wiley & Sons, pp. 83-90, 1996. Invited introductory discussion of turbulence and mixing in Volume 1 of this three Volume handbook. See 35 and 65. 79. Gibson, C. H., "Stratified Flow," Section 13.7 in Handbook of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery, Joseph Schetz and Allen E. Fuhs (Eds.), John Wiley & Sons, pp. 832-841. (Note: Sect., Ed., & Publ. changed.) Invited discussion of stratified flows for Volume 1 of this three Volume handbook. 80. Gibson, C. H., "Turbulence in the ocean, atmosphere, galaxy, and universe", Applied Mechanics Reviews, vol 49, no 5, 299-315, 1996. Reviews turbulence in natural flows, showing evidence of universal similarity from laboratory to intergalactic scales. Questions the Jeans (1902) acoustic self-gravitational instability criterion as being incomplete. Suggests condensation occurs at viscous and turbulent Schwarz scales which may be larger or smaller than the Jeans scale. This leads to new and different scenarios for structure formation in cosmology (and astrophysics). The largest structures form first in the plasma epoch after the big bang, controlled by viscous forces, leaving a nested foamlike topology of matter from supercluster to galaxy masses. At neutralization of the plasma about 300,000 years after the big bang the entire universe turns to fog, with primordial fog particle (PFP) masses of about 10^22 kg. These form the baryonic dark matter, since most of these PFPs remain as cold dark "moons" separated by 10^14 m in galactic halos. The remaining dark matter in this model of a "flat" universe is in the form of gradually condensing WIMP particles (weakly interacting massive particles) in supercluster and cluster halos. In astrophysics, powerful turbulence prevents condensation at the Jeans scale, so only huge blue stars can form in quasar jets and galactic disk blast waves.